SANTALI LANGUAGE, LITERATURE & CULTURE
The development of Traditional Santali language and literature was started from the very beginning of British Rule (East India Company) since 1870-75 over the region by some literary loving British prominate among them were L.O.Skerfsurd, P.O.Bodding, Campbell etc in a Roman script after written down the mythology of santhal from one famous santal/hor Guru Known as “Kaleyan Guru”. Though they have contributed lot for the development of modern Santali language and literature by establishing the press at Benagaria for popularizing the works over the linguistic concentration area of north Eastern Region, So many drama, folk tale, Santali dictionary etc were written during the period and enrich the traditional literature, prior to that the language and cultures of Santali people known as “Kherwal Community” were hoarded on teeth and myth from generation to generation. No doubt that the Santali or Hor language is an ancient dilect/language of the country world language and culture said to have been influence and base from this language as per the scholars and researchers. The Indo-European & Dravidian language, literature and Culture of modern Bharat bias towards this language, literature and culture in large extend after Independence. It can be said that santhali language and literature is pre-Aryan literature highly developed traditional modern literature and rich cultural heritage of pre-baidic (Beidin) age presently designated as Austro-Asiatic groups of language by the scholars.
The further invention of distinct modern script for the development of traditional modern Santali language, literature and culture was done during the period of development of others modern Indians language, script or culture for the shake of modern literature & culture identity of Jaher-Khand people i.e., nature worshiper groups of Kherwal community. The pioneers of modern Santali ” Language,literature & Culture” by invention and developing a distinct modern script known as “Ol-Chiki Parsi” in the first quarter of 20th century which has both capital & small letter. Subsequently the “short hand” concept of Olchiki was composed and developed by one Pruthunath Murmu of Tanki Sahi Baripoda for strengthen the Olchiki concept.
Only to spreading the “Modern Santali language, literature and Culture“ the following books were written and published for popularizing over the linguistics concentration area of Odisha, Bihar, west-Bengal, Assam etc since from 1920 by Sadhu Ramchand Murmu, Pondit Raghunath Murmu, Pruthunath Murmu etc and try to start the elementary education to the people in large scale under the banner of organization known as “Saonta = means Society, Seched=means Education, Lacture=means Literature & Semlled =means Association was formed from Rairangpur since 1941 now existed as dumps.
The list of Books written and published during the periods:
v KHERWAL BONSHAW DHARAM PUTHI : 1920
v LITA GOODET : 1925
v HITAL (Evaluation of Earth & human being) : 1930
v BAKHENL (Mantra in Santali) : 1935
v HOL-SERENG (Santali Song) : 1936
v OL-CHEMED (Formative style of Olchiki) : 1941
v PARSI-POHA (Combination of Script) : 1948
v OL-UPRUM (Recognition of Script) : 1953
v LACTURE SERENG (Religious Song) : 1963
v ELKHA (Math in Santali) : 1966
v RAG-ANDOL (Religious Bhojaon in Santali : 1970
v RONOL (Grammar in Santali literature) : 1974
v BIDU-CHANDAN (Literary Drama) : 1930
v DALEGE-DHON (Health is Wealth- Drama) : 1935
v KHERWAL-BIR (Patriotic Historical Drama) : 1940
v SIDO-KANHU (Patriotic Drama) : 1946
v SANTALI SHORT HAND : 1960
v EVOLUTION OF OLCHIKI : 1962
v HOR HOPON KORIN CHANDO-BONGA : 1965
During their working period over modern santali language, literature and culture Pandit Murmu has published the calendar “GOODET’ where he has arranged “Maha & Mahit“(Day’s & Date) calculated as per the lunar clips to get the religious identity of the “JAHER-KHOND” people in a modern way like the others religious community in modern era under SARNAISM groups. His noble deed over modern santali language, literature and culture pointed towards the principle of “identity of self rather than imitation“. In a totalitarian sense it can be said that according to them modern society can only be developed and changed when education will imposed to it by mother tongue and cultural identity can only be achieved when its literature became developed with own script. On the whole it is seen from their literary works reflected through poems in many ways that they were try to educate the linguistic people as well as warn the political leaders of the community and country during the period of partition of India as well as about the intentional suppression of modern Santali language, script & culture in a plan way by the British and modern thinkers. This historical path breaking not only gave them confidence for the development of modern Santali language and literature but also facilitate proper expression of their language written as it was not at all possible by any of the available script of modern Bharat.
PRE INDEPENDENCE SCENARIO OF MODERN INDIANS CABINET MISSION PLAN & IGNORING OF “SARNAISM” RELIGIOUS PEOPLES:
During the pre-independence era and as proposed by the British to give the political dead lock to Indians after Second World War the three members committee of British Cabinet were sent under “Cabinet Mission plan” in the year 1946. They were Lord Pathic Lowerence, Sir Stafford Cripps and Mr. Alexander when they recognized only three main communities in India i.e. General, Muslim & Sikh. But the Sarnaism Religious Community of Santali linguistic groups whose culture relates with Jaher, Jahira,Disauli etc and were demanded the separate state identity in the name of Jharkhand comprising of Chhatanagpur & Santal Parganna Commissioner were denied. It was either deliberately ignored by them taking the plea as Algao-Bad or kept within General category reason best known to them. On the other hand in the constitutional drafting committee appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R.Ambedkar these Sarnaism groups of peoples were not even included as representative of religious community or minority. Whereas the following religious minorities were kept as a representative in the constitutional drafting committee: From Sikh i) Hukum Singh & ii) Ujjal Singh, From Parsi i) Hami Modi & ii) R.K.Sidwa, From Indian Muslim i) Md.Sadaullah & ii) Jafar Immam, From Christian: John Mathai & ii) Joseph D souza, From Anglo Indian i) Frank Anthany & ii) SH Petter than the drafting committee submitted and published their drafted constitution report on 26th Feb 1948. Since the “Sarna” religious community were ignored during the period presuming the divide and rule policies over the people were imposed by the commission and the linguistics area were divided within Orissa & West-Bengal state under Merger Act. It was strongly opposed from Jharkhand political leaders leaded by Jaipal singh and Mr. Sunaram Soren on 1st January at Rajkhursuang and 6th feb 1949 at Rairangpur Orissa an great public meeting was called by them for re-inclusion of area with Chatnagpur Santal Pargana commissionaire as the people language literature and culture were having the separate identity like others modern spoken peoples and have demanded the separate identity in the name of “Jharkhand State”. But all the gathering was dispersed by using the military oppression taking the view as Algao-Bad people as Algao-Badi. Is not it the innocent unarmed people of Santali were massacres during the period in the name of Algao-Badi ? than Mr.Sunaram Soren and Jaipal Singh were taken to New-Delhi as per the order of Pandit Jabahar Lal Nehru. Where they were advised to consult with the Chairman of Constitutional drafting committee Dr,B.R.Ambedkar , there after the drafted and published constitution was revised and these people have been defined within “Backward Class”(Social & Educational) for the advancement in service, Politics, Education etc may be Art. 15(4), 16(4) 46, 338,340, 341(1) (2) 342(1) (2) &334 have been inserted and the reservation will seized after every 10 years from the date of commencement of the constitution. It was the “Red Letter Day” in the wake of freedom of modern Santali linguistic people who were fighting against the Bristh Rule over the region for more than 100 years i.e. from 1784 to 1900 under the leadership of Baba Tilka Majhi, Sido-Kanhu, Birsha Munda etc. Than finally the constitution was enacted and adopted by the constituent Assembly on 26th Nov.1949 and came in to force on 26th Jan-1950 and the “Backwards Class commission” started working since 10th September 1950 only to sub- categories these people in to a “Sub- Caste” known as Santhal, Ho,Munda, Mahale, Orang etc in the state of Bihar, Odisha and WB, where as dumped peoples in Assam have not been defined in any class and kept as General categories. Now the caste base thinkers of modern Bharat argued that the reservation is base on caste basis as per the modern constitution.
DEMAND HARKHAND STATE BASING ON SOCIO, CULTURAL & LINGUISTICALLY SIMILARITY AND SOVEREIGHNTY IGNORING THE INCLUSION OF SANTALI LANGUAGE IN VIII SCHEDULED BY CONSTITUTIONAL DRAFTING COMMITTEE ON THE 14TH DAY OF SEPTEMBER 1949:
During the time of creation of Modern Indians state on the basis of socio-cultural and linguistically similarity the sovereignty in the name of JHARKHAND was demanded by these people under the leadership of late Sunaram Soren and Jaipal Singh Munda. But the said demand was ignored and the present linguistic area was included with the Orissa state under Merger Act in the year 1949 arguing that the demand of Jharkhond is an ALGAO-BAD & their literature is also ALGAO-BADI. It has evident from the incident of GUNDURIA Massac of 6thfeb 1949 near Rairangpur called by Sunaram Soren and Raj Khursuang massac of Jaipal Sing near Chakardharpur of 1st Jan-1949.
Onthe 14th day of Sept.1949 theConstituent Assembly of Drafting Committee were debated over the issue of modern Indians languages under the president ship of Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru called by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar and 14+1= 15 languages were initially included in the scheduled VIII of the constitution out of which 13 language recognized as state language in the linguistics’ sovereignty state. As regards to Santali linguistic people in spite of richness of santali literature both modern and traditional with its own modern distinct script the inclusion of “Santali” language was ignored by the Constituent Assembly and the socio-culture, script olchiki were kept under object of research. May it’s be due to the formative style of script as the formative style of “OLCHIKI PARSI” (script) proves the nature shape duly compare with the nature, having both Capitals & Small letters as well as its “Short Hand“. This historic path breaking and invention of “Olchiki Parsi“ is not fully deciphered from the script found from the excavation of Mahenjodara and Harrapan civilizations. It is also inspire and instill a sense of confidence amongst the “Kherwal Community“of Santali linguistic people of Jharkhand, Orissa, Bengal, Assam etc for the development of modern Santali language, literature and Culture which will bring the literature and culture sovereignty of ancient and modern Bharat. How ever they have able to developed their modern and traditional rich “language & literature” like others modern Indians on the basis of socio, cultural and linguistically similarity in spite of kept them deliberately in the edge by infringing the constitutional norms. So many commissions including the Motilal Nehru Commission, Dhar Commission, JVP Commission, and State Re-Organization Commission again Linguistic Commission were set-up from 1925 to 1953 by Congress and government. But all the commission too denied the creation of Jharkhand state, rather the Linguistic Commission argued that these people do not have any common language to be used for all. Also it can’t be ignored that all these act of suppression and depression to these linguistic kherwal community is nothing but an improper patronization by their intellectuals it couse the incomplete knowledge of others over Modern Santali Language, script, and culture invented and propagated for the shake of modern identity.
By : Rapaj Boma Kisku@rapaj